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   NATURAL HISTORY, FAUNA AND FLORA.  

Parque Nacional de Sierra Nevada. Parque Natural Sierra de Grazalema. Parque Natural Entorno de Doñana. Parque Natural Bahía de Cádiz. Parque Natural Sierra de Tejeda, Almijara y Alhama. Parque Natural Sierra de Cazorla. Página Principal parques Naturales de Andalucía. Parque Nacional de Sierra Nevada. Parque Natural Sierra de Grazalema. Parque Natural Entorno de Doñana. Parque Natural Bahía de Cádiz. Parque Natural Sierra de Tejeda, Almijara y Alhama. Parque Natural Sierra de Cazorla. Página Principal parques Naturales de Andalucía.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Natural History

The Bahía de Cadiz Natural Park is on the Atlantic coast and consists of a mosaic of landscapes such as beaches, mud flats and marshes.

Declared a Natural Park on the 28th of July, 1989, it covers an area of 10,522 hectares, around the towns of Cadiz, San Fernando, Chiclana, Puerto Real and Puerto de Santa Maria.

Its location, between the nearby Doñana National Park and the Straits of Gibraltar, makes the bay of Cadiz a key migration area for many birds.

It is a winter breeding habitat of beaches, salt marshes and pine forests for migrating populations of more than 200 species of waterfowl. Sea salt extraction has been coupled with inshore fishing and are the traditional uses of the bay. The technique of salt production has remained almost the same for centuries. The intrusion of the sea and the river mouths of Guadalete and San Pedro rivers, along with the mild Mediterranean climate, give this wetland its ecological character and its diverse landscape of beaches, dunes, lagoons, wetlands and estuaries. Sea water driven by the tide enters through a supply pipe and gates through successive ponds until the warm winds of the Levant and the intense sunlight, cause intense evaporation and salt crystallization.

Despite the high local population pressure, the Wetlands of Sancti Petri, where we can find Phoenician and Roman remains, including the Temple of Hercules and the old port in the Caño del Trocadero, (declared Natural Places), have been preserved almost intact .

There are also military buildings and the remains of one of the oldest railway lines in Spain. The important strategic and defensive value of the area influenced the early appearance, of human settlements in the bay 3,000 years ago, which have left a unique heritage of ancient fortifications. Even after many years, the Bay of Cadiz boasts an exceptional heritage of ancient fortifications, of great historical and architectural value which played an important role during the War of Independence, with San Fernando and Cadiz being the only cities that withstood the siege.

Much of local life revolved around salt, conditioning its subsistence since time immemorial and marking its character. A salt crisis has resulted from the progressive filling and draining of thousands of acres of marsh for urban, industrial and agricultural land.
Currently, most of the salt marshes are used for fish farming marine species such as clams, oysters, sea bass, sole, mullet, and prawns. However, small enclaves of natural marsh are still preserved almost intact. Salt extraction has given way to other activities such as shellfish fishing in the estuary, coastal fishing and a thriving aquaculture, all major resources of the area.

In its vicinity there is also the Estrecho Natural Park which includes the towns of Algeciras and Tarifa, the latter being part of a historical group. Its cultural heritage is another of the park’s claims to fame, due to the numerous archaeological remains in the ancient Roman city of Baelo Claudia, a National Historical Monument. Its legacy is not limited to the surface but its underwater heritage is also as important, given the number of wrecks in the zone.

This entire environmental enclave, from the area of Barbate to Caños de Meca and inland to Vejer de la Frontera, is one of the less extensive natural parks called La Brena and the Barbate Marshes Natural Park. Of special note is the impressive Tajo de Barbate, which at over 100 metres, is the highest cliff of the Andalucian Atlantic coastal area.

 

 

Central Station Restaurante en Sanlucar de Barrameda

Pub Camarote, las Mejores Vistas de Doñana

Degustación típica en nuestra Bodega.

Barbadillo

Bodegas Argüeso en Sanlucar de Barrameda

 


 

Fauna and Flora

The diversity of the present ecosystems, with marshes, dunes and beaches, as well as a complex network of channels and streams, allows the existence of different types of vegetation that provides habitat for many species. Due to its intermediate position between the Straits of Gibraltar and the Doñana National Park it is an excellent place to observe birds migrating between Europe and Africa.

 

Fauna: The area has some of the most important Spanish colonies of terns, stilts and avocets. On the beaches, one can spot pelicans, cormorants, seagulls and wading species such as oystercatchers, as well as Tridactyle, Sandpipers, Agujas, Colipintas, Terns and Snowy plover. Other inhabitants are the elegant Flamenco and the Osprey.
In muddy coastal areas cockles, Murex Brandanis, clams, shrimp and crabs abound. They are also present in the salt marshes where so-called "marsh fish" like Halibut, Sea bass and Lisas are caught and also a great diversity of birds, especially species like the Little tern, (with some of the largest colonies in Spain), Avocets, Storks, Herons, Cormorants, several species of gulls, waterfowl and migratory waders such as curlew and large Royal Andarias. Not forgetting chameleons lizards which are very common in the dunes.
     

    • Flora: the Flora consists of species adapted to saline environments, the flood tide and sandy soils.
      In the marshes, Espartina type plants such as Salicornia and Sarcoconia dominate depending on the flood level. Vegetation also invades the dunes, stabilizing them as they move farther from the coast. Barrones, Rubia de Mar, Carnation, Sea thistle and Sea spurge are examples of dune species. In many places Pine trees and bushes stoically surviving the saline environment break through. Evidence of the dense pine forest that once stretched along the coast there are still enclaves like the Pinar de Algaida or a small pine forest on almost 6 acres in the marsh of Sancti Petri, declared a Natural Place. In the marshes we find the salty Almajar, Sea Purslane and Inula Cadero. On the Island of Trocadero there are species of the genus Sarcocornia and Arthrocnemun and halophyte Spartina sea grass.


 
 
 
 
camaleon en cadiz  
 
 
 
   
 
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